Features of Japanese Verbs Groups


Japanese verbs are classified into 3 groups.


Group I verbs (U-verb)

Dictionary forms end in the syllables う-u, く-ku, ぐ-gu, す-su, つ-tsu, ぬ-nu, ぶ-bu, む-mu, -るru.

The last sound of the ますforms is from い column い-i, ち-chi, り-ri, き-ki, ぎ-gi, に-ni, び-bi, み-mi, し-shi.

The potential form of Group 1 verb: drop the final う-u and add eる-eru.



Group 1 verb conjugation pattern:

ない form (-a) まない

ます form (-i) まます

dictionary form (-u) ま

potential form (-e)

volitional form (-o)



Group II verbs (Ru-verb)

Dictionary forms end in る-ru (following either i or e).

The last sound of the ますforms is from え column. example:食べる taberu (eat). However, in some verbs, it is from theい column.example:見る miru (see)

The potential form of Group 2 verb: drop the final る-ru and add られる-rareru.


Group 2 verb conjugation pattern:

ない form たべ+ない

ます form たべ+ます

dictionary form たべ+る

potential form たべ+られる

volitional form たべ+よう



Group Ill verbs

Irregular Verb (usually just two are distinguished, くる kuru ‘come' and する suru 'do’) are included in this group. This group includes action-denoting nouns +する suru too.


Group 2 verb conjugation pattern する:

ない form しない

ます form します

dictionary form する

potential form できる

volitional form しよう


Group 3 verb conjugation pattern くる:

ない form こない

ます form きます

dictionary form くる

potential form こられる

volitional form こよう


Verb Conjugations List

Verb Conjugations List

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